ARE 5.0 Project Development & Documentation (PDD) Study Notes

ARE 5.0 Project Development & Documentation (PDD) Study Notes

Going into what will hopefully be my second to last ARE exam on Saturday…PPD. Feedback from other test-takers has been mixed on this exam. Some say PDD was easy due to experience and most say it was either their hardest or second hardest (next to PPD). I hope to be the former.

I did find PPD a little challenging but also was coming down with food poisoning while trying to finish the exam. So, needless to say, it was a bit more of a blur than the others and I did have to rely partially on working knowledge and educated process of elimination. Nonetheless, I passed PPD first try…leaving the upcoming PDD and CE as my last two. CE is scheduled for next month. The finish line is near…but we are never truly done learning.

PDD Overview

The following is an overview of what may appear on the PDD exam based on reviewing NCARB’s ARE 5.0 Handbook (Sept 2018 version) and ARE related discussion boards. NCARB updates the handbook on occasion, so it is best to always check the most current copy from their website. They also have example problems that you should review to have a better understanding of what may show up on the exam. There is likely to be some overlap with PPD so you will want to briefly review those subjects. Follow this link for my PPD notes entry.

120 questions in 4 hours 15 min

Integration of Building Materials & Systems: 31 – 37%

  • Integration of architectural systems and technologies
    Size MEP systems and components
    Size structural systems
    Integrate acoustics, lighting, fire suppression, conveying, security, communications
    Detail of integration of multiple systems
    Coordinate MEP, structural, specialty, and technology systems

Construction Documentation: 32 – 38%

  • Document building design
  • Document site features
  • Detail drawings within architectural systems
  • CD standards
  • Determine impact of project changes on CDs and how to communicate changes to owner/team

Project Manual & Specifications: 12 – 18%

  • identify components needed to write, maintain and refine project manual
  • identify components needed to write, maintain and refine project specification
  • coordinate specifications with CDs

Code & Regulations: 8 – 14%

  • adhere to IBC at detail level
  • adhere to special regulatory requirements at detail level (ADA, energy, historic, fair housing, IGCC, environmental,etc )

Construction Cost Estimates: 2 – 8%

  • analyze cost estimate to confirm alignment with project design.

PPD Notes

These notes are a brief overview and should not be considered to fully cover all topics or information required to pass PDD. The content is roughly arranged per the NCARB ARE handbook sections. The arrangement of the information does not matter for the exams. The exam questions are not going to tell you which section is being tested and much of the information overlaps multiple sections.

Integration of Building Materials & Systems

  1. Integration of architectural systems and technologies
  2. Size MEP/Structural systems and components
  3. Integrate acoustics, lighting, fire suppression, conveying, security, communications
  4. Detail of integration of multiple systems
    Coordinate MEP, structural, specialty, and technology systems
  • HVAC
    • Sizing mechanical room:
      • All-Air: 3% to 10% of the total area served
      • All-Water: 1% to 3% of the total area served
      • Air-Water: 3% to 10% of the total area served
    • Comfortable air temperature ranges between 69°F and 80°F
    • Comfortable Air movement:
      • 50 feet/min – barely noticeable
      • 50-100 feet/min – ideal
      • 100-200 feet/min – pleasant but noticeable
      • 200-300 feet/min – feels drafty
      • +300 feet/min – gusty and uncomfortable
    • Stoves for heating (most efficient to least):
      • airtight stove
      • almost airtight stove,
      • nonairtight stove
      • fireplace
  • Wastewater
    • Grades are sloped to provide a velocity between 2.5 feet per second and 10 feet per second.
    • Detention: temporary storage
    • Retention: stored indefinitely
  • Water Supply
    • 0.433 psi of water pressure lost/gained per foot elevation change
    • Upfeed water supply building height 40 and 60 feet max to meet min fixture psi.
    • Copper pipe
      • three grades: K, L, and M (arranged from thinnest thickest walls)
      • Hard temper (straight lengths) and soft temper (coils) are available in copper grades K and L
      • M is only available straight
    • Plastic pipes
      • flexible: PEX-AL-PEX, PErigid: ABS, CPVC, PP, PVC
      • Either: HDPE
    • PRV = pressure reducer valve
  • Structure
    • Spans (shortest to longest)
      • Wood Beams
        • 10 to 30ft
        • Cut to length on site
        • easy to work with
        • low rise construction
      • Two Way Slab
        • 10 to 40 ft
        • easy construction
        • consistent but flexible column grid
        • residential or hotel (good for)
      • Waffle Slab
        • 25 to 55 ft
        • long spans
        • heavy loads
        • thick floor
        • vibration control
        • complex construction
      • Steel Beams
        • 10 to 75 ft
        • versatile
        • easy to work with
        • tall structures
        • most economical @ 20 – 40 ft
      • Steel Open Web Joist
        • 10 to 100+ ft
        • sim to steel beams
        • economical at 40+ ft
        • economical for high concentrated loads
    • lamella: spans large distances with little or no support.
    • counterfort retaining wall e stem and base are connected at intervals by transverse walls. 
    • 1 roofing square = 100 square feet
    • Wood
      • Types of wood warping:
        • bow
        • crook
        • cup
        • twist
      • Wood is strongest against forces applied parallel to the grain and when shear is perpendicular to the grain. Most wood shrinkage occurs perpendicular to the grain.
      • Camber in glulam beams:
        • avoid appearance of sag
        • eliminate ponding of water due to sag
        • compensate for deflection
    • Concrete
      • Laitance: “a thin, flaky layer of hardened but weak hydrated cement and fine sand which began life as a milky scum on the top surface of concrete.” source
      • know: one-way vs two-way slabs vs steel truss
      • column cap adds shear capacity
    • Solar
      • Calculate sun altitude:
        • 90 – Latitude+ Declination
        • Summer Solstice: 90-L + 23.5
        • Winter Solstice: 90-L – 23.5
      • Earth tilts at 23.5 degrees
  • Acoustics
    • Sones are a unit of subjective or perceived loudness.
    • Decibels are an objective measurement of sound.
    • Sound within a room
      • SAC = sound absorption coefficient; how materials absorb sound
      • NRC = avg value of SAC at common frequencies
    • Sound between rooms
      • STC = sound transfer between rooms
    • loudspeaker systems:
      • central system: directional high-frequency units combined with less directional low-frequency units placed above and slightly in front of the sound source.
      • distributed system low-level overhead loudspeakers evenly located throughout space
  • Elevator types and applications:
    • gearless traction elevator:
      • fastest: 500 to 1,200 ft/min
      • Skyscrapers: Up to 2,000 ft hight
      • long life
      • smooth ride.
      • electric motor turns elevator sheave direction
    • Geared traction
      • fast: 500 fpm
      • mid-rise buildings: 75 to 300 ft
      • electric motor with gear box
    • Machine room-less traction
      • low to mid-rise buildings: 0 to 250 ft
      • small motor inside elevator shaft
    • Hydraulic elevators
      • low speed: 30-60 ft/min\
      • requires machine room
      • low first cost
      • inefficient energy
      • 5 stories max
    • LULA (Limited Use/ Limited Application) elevator. 
      • hybrid b/t full-size commercial elevator and a wheelchair lift. 
      • low-rise buildings.
  • Seismic
    • underpinning is the process of strengthening the foundation of an existing building or other structure.
    • Moment Frames:  No Diagonal Members
      • IMRF – Intermediate moment-resisting frame
      • OMRF – Ordinary moment-resisting frame
      • SMRF – Steel moment-resisting frame
    • Top 5 states for earthquakes (per USGS): Alaska, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Washington
    • Seismic Mitigation Strategies:
      • Uniform loading with continuous load path
      • Minimizing height-to-base ratio reduces risk of overturning
      • Uniform floor heights = uniform structural stiffness
      • Symmetric plan to minimize torsion
      • Equal resistance on all axes minimizes torsion.
      • Avoiding eccentric loads minimizes torsion.
      • Uniform sections reduce concentrated stress
      • Seismic resistance at perimeter increases torsion resistance.
      • Use short spans and distributed loads
      • Avoid cantilevers to reduce vertical acceleration movement
      • Avoid openings in diaphragm
    • Eccentric Load = one that is not equal on both sides of the beam
  • Electrical
    • Switchgear – collective name of all electrical panels
    • Direct Metering: each tenant has own meter
    • Master Metering: entire building has only one meter

Construction Documentation

  1. Document building design & site features
  2. Detail drawings within architectural systems
  3. CD standards
  4. Determine impact of project changes on CDs and how to communicate changes to owner/team
  • R=x/k where x is the thickness of the material in inches
  • Sound transmission
    • related to density. 
    • least dense = easier sound transmission
    • Least to most dense: Air, Water, Wood, Brick, Concrete, Steel Glass, Aluminum
    • Closely spaced studs create a stiff wall and is bad for STC
  • Thermal conductivity (BTU/FT hr °F)
    • Sand: 0.44
    • Clay: 0.64
    • Saturated silt or Saturated clay: 0.96
    • Saturated sand: 1.4
  • Convection is the only form of heat transfer in which direction makes a difference.
  • Concrete
    • Control joints reduce the sectional area making the concrete weaker in that location

Project Manual & Specifications

  1. identify components needed to write, maintain and refine project manual & specification…know the difference
  2. coordinate specifications with CDs
  • CSI Divisions
    • 00 – Procurement and Contracting Requirements
    • 01 – General Requirements
    • 02 – Existing Conditions
    • 03 – Concrete
    • 04 – Masonry
    • 05 – Metals
    • 06 – Wood, Plastics, Composites
    • 07 – Thermal and Moisture Protection
    • 08 – Openings
    • 09 – Finishes
    • 10 – Specialties
    • 11 – Equipment
    • 12 – Furnishings
    • 13 – Special Construction
    • 14 – Conveying Equipment
    • 21 – Fire Suppression
    • 22 – Plumbing
    • 23 – Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC)
    • 25 – Integrated Automation
    • 26 – Electrical
    • 27 – Communications
    • 28 – Electronic Safety and Security
    • 31 – Earthwork
    • 32 – Exterior Improvements
    • 33 – Utilities
    • 34 – Transportation
    • 35 – Waterway and Marine Construction
    • 40 – Process Integration
    • 41 – Material Processing and Handling Equipment
    • 42 – Process Heating, Cooling, and Drying Equipment
    • 43 – Process Gas and Liquid Handling, Purification and Storage Equipment
    • 44 – Pollution and Waste Control Equipment
    • 45 – Industry-Specific Manufacturing Equipment
    • 46 – Water and Wastewater Equipment
    • 48 – Electrical Power Generation
  • Sizing
    • lighting and rebar number size refers to how many 1/8 wide it is.
  • Glazing
    • Single-strength: 3/32″ thick
    • Double-strength: 1/8″ thick
  • Wood
    • An opening between wood growth rings containing resin is termed a pitch pocket.
    • Wood classifications:
      • Dressed
      • Rough
      • Worked
      • Wood Moisture Content:
      • green >/= 30%
      • maintained < 20% it will not rot
      • Concrete/Masonry
      • Air entrainment introduces microscopic air bubbles to a concrete mix. 
      • concrete mixes should have a water-cement ratio between 0.45 and 0.60
      • Masonry is held together with mortar (between pieces of masonry) and grout (fills cavities in the masonry unit)
      • Mortar Types:
        • M: highest Strength used for below grade applications under high compression, such as retaining walls, and also use with stone
        • S: medium strength
  • Life Safety
    • Fire protection devices:
      • Ionization detector
        • use indoors w/ low air movement and smoke not expected
        • do not use in kitchens
      • Photoelectric detector
        • best at slow smoldering fires
      • Rise-of-temperature (heat) detector:
        • only works when fire is already hot
        • backup system
    • Fire Types
      • Class A: Anything that leaves ash
      • Class B: Fuels
      • Class C: electrical
  • MEP
    • Volt-amp is unit of measurement found by multiplying volts by amps
    • ” Natural zeolite is a new and very good natural filter medium available for the filtration of water. It offers superior performance to sand and carbon filters, giving purer water and higher throughput rates with less maintenance required. It has many advantages over sand and can be used to directly replace sand in a normal sand filter.” Read more: https://www.lenntech.com/library/media-filtration/zeolites-applications.htm#ixzz5ylUEHg7e

Code & Regulations

  1. adhere to IBC at detail level
  2. adhere to special regulatory requirements at detail level (ADA, energy, historic, fair housing, IGCC, environmental,etc )
  • Fire Walls
    • 2-4 hour
    • protected openings
    • restrict the spread of fire
    • extends continuously from the foundation to or through the roof
    • sufficient structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of construction on either side without collapse of the wall.
  • Fire Barriers
    • 1-4 hour
    • protected openings
    • A fire-resistance-rated wall assembly
    • designed to restrict the spread of fire
  • Fire Partitions
    • 1/2 – 1 hour
    • protected openings
    • designed to restrict the spread of fire
  • Smoke Barriers
    • 1 hour
    • protected openings
    • continuous membrane
    • restrict the movement of smoke
  • Smoke Partitions
    • non-rated
    • protected openings
    • limit the transfer or passage of smoke
  • Steel fire protection:
    • Plaster encasement
    • Intumescent coatings
    • Spray on contour fire proofing
  • Construction Types
    • TYPE I-A--Fire Resistive Non-combustible
      • Commonly found in high-rise buildings and Group I occupancies.
      • 3 Hr. Exterior Walls*
      • 3 Hr. Structural Frame
      • 2 Hr. Floor/Ceiling Assembly
      • 1 ½ Hr. Roof Protection
    • TYPE I-B–Fire Resistive Non-Combustible
      • Commonly found in mid-rise office & Group R buildings.
      • 2 Hr. Exterior Walls
      • 2 Hr. Structural Frame
      • 2 Hr. Ceiling/Floor Separation
      • 1 Hr. Ceiling/Roof Assembly
    • TYPE II-A–Protected Non-Combustible
      • Commonly found in newer school buildings.
      • 1 Hr. Exterior Walls
      • 1 Hr. Structural Frame
      • 1 Hr. Floor/Ceiling/Roof Protection
    • TYPE II-B–Unprotected Non-Combustible
      • Most common type of non-combustible construction used in commercial buildings.
      • Building constructed of non-combustible materials but these materials have no fire resistance.
    • TYPE III-A–Protected Combustible
      • Also known as “ordinary” construction
      • with brick or block walls and a wooden roof or floor assembly which is 1 hour fire protected.
      • 2 Hr. Exterior Walls
      • 1 Hr. Structural Frame
      • 1 Hr. Floor/Ceiling/Roof Protection
    • TYPE III-B–Unprotected Combustible
      • Also known as “ordinary” construction;
      • has brick or block walls with a wooden roof or floor assembly which is not protected against fire.
      • These buildings are frequently found in “warehouse” districts of older cities.
      • 2 Hr. Exterior Walls
      • No fire resistance for structural frame, floors, ceilings, or roofs.
    • TYPE IV–Heavy Timber
      • also known as “mill” construction;
      • to qualify all wooden members must have a minimum nominal dimension of 8 inches.
      • 2 Hr. Exterior Walls
      • 1 Hr. Structural Frame or Heavy Timber
      • Heavy Timber Floor/Ceiling/Roof Assemblies
    • TYPE V-A–Protected Wood Frame
      • Commonly used in the construction of newer apartment buildings;
      • there is no exposed wood visible.
      • 1 Hr. Exterior Walls
      • 1 Hr. Structural Frame
      • 1 Hr. Floor/Ceiling/Roof
    • TYPE V-B–Unprotected Wood Frame
      • single family homes and garages.
      • They often have exposed wood so there is no fire resistance.
  • Know about the following:
    • Fire Separation of occupancies
    • Dead-end corridors:
      • 20 ft unprotected
      • 50 ft protected
      • L=Wx2.5
      • is a dead end if the door does not swing in the direction of travel and occupancy is greater than 49
    • Cooridor width:
      • 0..2 / person
      • 0.15 / person (sprinkled)
      • healthcare is wider
    • Common path of travel
    • Doors in corridors 
    • Shaft enclosures
    • Ramps
    • Use and occupancy classification
    • Atriums
    • Fire walls, barriers, partitions
    • Mezzanines – IBC 505
    • Max building height and area
    • Occupant loads
    • IBC construction Types I-V

Construction Cost Estimates

  1. analyze cost estimate to confirm alignment with project design.
  • Life-cycle cost in equation form is:
    • LCC = IC + MC + AC + OC
    • where,
      • IC = investment cost (first cost minus salvage)
      • MC = maintenance & repair cost
      • AC = amortization cost (replacement)
      • OC = operating cost (including labor and energy)
PDD Comic Relief

Resources:

  • Architect’s Studio Companion (good single source)
  • Architectural Graphic Standards
  • Building Codes Illustrated – 2015 – also look at actual IBC
  • MEEB – for reference when needed
  • Building Structures
  • Fundamental of Building Structures
  • Timesaver Standards – Wall Types
  • Acoustics
  • Building Construction Illustrated – for reference when needed
  • ADA & ICC A117.1-2009
  • American Society of Engineers 7-10 Min Design Loads 2013
  • Sun Wind & Light (own it…don’t like the format)
  • Amber Book – Building Systems practice questions (4.0)
  • Ballast – Structural Systems Sample Problems (4.0)
  • Why Buildings Stand Up – Chapters 3, 4, and 5

Misc. Links



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